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J Korean Med Assoc > Volume 45(7); 2002 > Article
Journal of the Korean Medical Association 2002;45(7):804-810.
Published online August 9, 2016.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5124/jkma.2002.45.7.804   
Diagnosis of Colorectal Cancer Overview and Clinical Features of Colorectal Cancer
Bong Hwa Lee, Seung Yong Jeong
Abstract
Recent development of dignostic tools such as video-endoscopy, chromoscopy, magnifying endoscopy, and endoscopic ultrasonography has made it possible to do the accurate staging of colorectal cancer. Dysplasia confined to mucosa or upper one-third of submucosa of rectal wall can be treated with mucosal resection or local resection for cure. The involvement of perirectal lymph node by cancers can be confirmed by endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (EUS-FNA). Positron emission tomography is useful for the detection of recurrent and metastatic tumor after surgical resection. Colonoscopy is cost-effective for the screening of cancer, however, But the virtual colonoscopy with MR or CT can play the role of colonoscopy without risk. Stool DNA test is a promising tool. In addition to traditional diagnostic tools such as colonoscopy, CT and pathology, emerging knowledge from molecular biology of cancer gives information on predicts the prognosis of colorectal cancer patients. Colorectal cancer is the 4th most common cancer occurring in Korea, exceeded in frequency by stomach, liver, and lung cancer. It is also the 4th leading cause of cancer death in Korea. The incidence of the colorectal cancer in Korea is increasing gradually and continuously for the recent several decades. The etiology of carcinoma of the colon and rectum remains unclear. However, many studies have suggested a correlation between colorectal cancer and dietary factors such as excessive intake of animal fat, protein, and refined carbohydrates, and less intake of vegetable fiber. There are also a number of diseases with hereditary predisposition to colorectal cancer. Those are familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), Peutz Jeghers syndrome, and juvenile polyposis. The clinical features of colorectal cancer are varied and nonspecific. The symptoms that most often prompt patients to seek medical attention include rectal bleeding, a change in bowel habit, and abdominal pain. Whether a patient has any noticeable symptoms or what form the symptoms take depends somewhat on the location of the tumor and the extent of disease.
Key Words: Colorectal cancer, Colonoscopy, EUS, Molecular biology, Diagnosis, Incidence, Mortality
 


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